Mechanisms of Drug Interactions

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1 Introduction.- A. A Widening Problem.- I. Scope of This Present Volume.- B. Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions.- I. Drug-Drug and Nutrient-Drug Interactions at the Absorption Site.- II. Drug Interactions at Plasma- and Tissue-Binding Sites.- III. Drug Interactions and Drug-Metabolising Enzymes.- IV. Interactions Involving Renal Excretory Mechanisms.- C. Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions.- I. Drug-Drug Interactions at the Receptor and Other Active Sites.- II. Synergistic Interactions.- III. Drug Interactions In Vitro.- IV. Age and Genetic Factors.- V. Interference with Laboratory Testing.- VI. Herbal and Other Non-orthodox Medicines.- D. Comment.- I. Drug Interactions: Hazardous and Expensive Use of Resources?.- II. Sources of Information.- III. The Literature on Drug Interactions.- References.- Section I: Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions.- 2 Drug Interactions in The Gastrointestinal Tract and Their Impact on Drug Absorption and Systemic Availability: A Mechanistic Review.- A. Introduction.- B. Physicochemical Interactions.- I. Complexation with Metal Ions.- II. Binding to Resins.- III. Complexation with Bile Salts.- IV. Nonspecific Adsorption.- C. Interactions with Drugs That Influence GI Motility and pH.- I. Alteration of Gastrointestinal Motility.- II. pH Alteration in the Gastrointestinal Tract.- D. Interactions Between Drugs That Share the Same Absorption Mechanism.- I. Passive Absorption.- II. Carrier-Mediated Absorption.- E. Interactions as a Function of Intestinal Metabolism.- F. Altered Absorption as a Result of Drug-Induced Mucosal Changes.- References.- 3 Drug-Food Interactions Affecting Drug Absorption.- A. Introduction.- I. Food.- II. Dosage Form.- B. Influence of Food on the Gastrointestinal Tract.- C. Direct Effect of Food on Drug Absorption.- D. Interactions Causing Reduced Drug Absorption.- E. Interactions Causing Delayed Drug Absorption.- F. Interactions Causing Increased Drug Absorption.- G. Interactions Causing Accelerated Drug Absorption.- H. Cases in Which Food Has No Effect on Drug Absorption.- I. Conclusions.- References.- 4 Drug Interactions at Plasma and Tissue Binding Sites.- A. Introduction.- B. Proteins Involved in Drug Binding.- C. Influence of Plasma and Tissue Binding on Drug Kinetics.- D. Displacement of Drugs from Binding Sites.- E. Therapeutic Consequences of Plasma Binding Displacement Drug-Drug Interactions.- I. Rapid Intravenous Infusion of Displacing Agent.- II. Parenteral Administration of Displaced Drug Having High Extraction Ratio.- III. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Drug Displacement from Plasma Binding Sites.- F. Therapeutic Consequences of Tissue Binding Displacement Interactions.- G. Displacement of Drugs from Binding Sites by Endogenous Materials.- H. Disease States and Altered Plasma Protein Binding.- I. Conclusions.- References.- 5 Drug Interactions and Drug-Metabolising Enzymes.- A. General Introduction.- B. Extrahepatic Microsomal Forms of Cytochrome P450.- C. Genetic Polymorphism.- D. Age and Disease and Cytochrome P450.- E. Clinical Importance of Enzyme Induction or Inhibition.- I. Enzyme Inducers.- II. Enzyme Inhibitors.- F. Conclusions.- References.- 6 Drug Interactions Involving Renal Excretory Mechanisms.- A. Introduction.- B. Mechanisms of Renal Excretory Clearance.- I. Anatomy and Physiology of the Kidney.- II. Glomerular Filtration.- III. Tubular Secretion.- 1. Physiological Considerations.- 2. Cellular Mechanisms.- 3. Pharmacokinetic Evidence for Tubular Secretion.- IV. Tubular Reabsorption.- C. Drug Interactions Involving Tubular Secretion.- I. Organic Anions.- 1. Probenecid.- 2. Methotrexate.- II. Organic Cations.- 1. Cimetidine.- 2. Ranitidine.- 3. Famotidine.- 4. Trimethoprim.- 5. Amiodarone.- 6. Quinine/Quinidine.- III. Organic Neutral Drugs.- 1. Digoxin.- D. Tubular Reabsorption.- I. Proximal Tubule Site.- 1. Lithium.- II. Distal Tubule/Collecting Duct Site.- 1. Urine pH and Flow Rate.- References.- Section II: Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions.- 7 Drug-Drug Interactions at Receptors and Other Active Sites.- A. Introduction.- B. Mechanisms of Pharmacodynamic Interactions.- I. Transmitter Systems.- 1. Noradrenergic Synapse.- 2. Dopaminergic Synapse.- 3. Serotonergic Synapse.- 4. Cholinergic Synapse.- 5. GABAergic Synapse.- II. Ion Channels.- 1. Cardiac Ion Channels and Antiarrhythmic Drugs.- 2. Potassium Channels and Drug-Induced Torsades de Pointes.- 3. ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels.- III. Hormonal Systems.- 1. Adrenal Corticosteroids.- 2. Glycaemic Regulation.- IV. Homeostatic Regulations.- 1. Renal Haemodynamics and Drug-Induced Acute Renal Failure.- 2. Prostaglandins, Natriuresis and Antihypertensive Therapy.- 3. Potassium Homeostasis.- References.- 8 Synergistic Drug Interactions.- A. Introduction: “Mithridatium”.- B. Early Use of Probenecid with Penicillin.- C. Diuretic Combinations.- D. Co-trimoxazole.- E. Combination Treatment in Control of Epilepsy.- F. Antitubercular Drugs.- G. Anti-Leprosy Treatments.- H. Peptic Ulcer Therapy.- I. Non-Insulin-Dependent (Maturity Onset) Diabetes.- J. Cancer Chemotherapy.- K. Beneficial Interactions: A Philosophical Approach.- References.- 9 In Vitro Drug Interactions.- A. Introduction.- B. Incompatibility Interactions.- C. In Vitro Drug Interactions with Pharmaceutical Packaging and Intravenous Administration Equipment.- I. General Properties of Plastics.- II. General Properties of Glass.- III. Mechanisms of Interaction with Pharmaceutical Packaging.- 1. Sorption.- 2. Leaching.- 3. Permeation.- 4. Polymer Modification.- IV. Drug Interactions with Contact Lenses.- D. In Vitro Drug Interactions in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Drug Analysis.- I. Cyclosporin.- II. Chloroquine.- E. In Vitro Drug Interactions as a Result of Formulation Changes.- I. Problems with Sustained-Release Formulations.- II. Drug Excipient Interactions.- III. Formulation Effects on Rectal Bioavailability.- F. Conclusions.- References.- 10 Age and Genetic Factors in Drug Interactions.- A. Introduction.- B.Age.- I. Pharmacokinetics in the Elderly.- 1. Absorption.- 2. Distribution.- 3. Metabolism.- 4. Excretion.- II. Pharmacodynamics in the Elderly.- III. Inappropriate, Unnecessary and Interacting Medication.- IV. Logistics: Age and Medicine Consumption.- V. Long-Term Treatments.- C. Genetic Factors.- D. Comment.- References.- 11 Drugs Causing Interference with Laboratory Tests.- A. Introduction.- B. Mechanisms of Drug-Test Interactions.- I. Pharmacological Interferences.- 1. Effect on Glucose Determination.- 2. Effect on Uric Acid Determination.- 3. Intramuscular Injections and Muscle Enzyme Determination.- 4. Effect of Drug-Drug Interactions.- II. Methodological Interferences.- 1. Colorimetrie Interferences.- 2. Effect on pH of the Assay Environment.- 3. Interference with Chromatographic Methods.- 4. Interference with Enzymatic Reactions.- 5. Interference with Immunoassays.- C. Design of a Study for Evaluation of Analytical Interference.- D. Conclusions.- References.- 12 Drug Interactions with Herbal and Other Non-orthodox Remedies.- A. Introduction.- B. Animal Agents.- I. Fish Oil.- II. Chinese Toad Venom.- C. Amino Acids.- I. l-Tryptophan.- D. Vitamins.- E. Minerals.- F. Dietary Fads.- G. Herbal Drugs.- I. Effects of Herbal Drugs on Orthodox Drug Pharmacokinetics: Effects on Absorption.- 1. Dietary Fibres.- 2. Guar Gum.- 3. Tannins.- II. Effects of Herbal Drugs on Orthodox Drug Pharmacokinetics: Effects on Elimination.- 1. Cola Nut.- 2. Eucalyptus Species.- 3. Grapefruit Juice.- 4. Herbal Smoking Preparations.- 5. Kampo Medicines.- 6. Liquorice.- III. Effects of Orthodox Drugs on Herbal Drug Pharmacokinetics.- 1. Caffeine-Containing Herbs.- 2. Sparteine-Containing Herb.- 3. Teucrium chamaedrys.- IV. Pharmacodynamic Interactions Between Herbal Drugs and Orthodox Drugs.- 1. Betel Nut (Areca catechu).- 2. Garlic (Allium sativum).- 3. Karela (Momordica charantia).- 4. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).- 5. Picrorhiza kurroa.- V. Multiple or Unclarified Interactions Between Herbal Drugs and Orthodox Drugs.- 1. Anthranoid Laxatives.- 2. Berberine.- 3. Ginseng (Pamax ginseng).- 4. Piperine.- 5. “Shankhapusphi”.- 6. Yohimbine.- VI. Interactions Between Different Herbal Drugs.- H. Comment.- References.
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Beschreibung

Details

Einband

Taschenbuch

Erscheinungsdatum

28.09.2011

Herausgeber

Patrick F. D'Arcy + weitere

Verlag

Springer Berlin

Seitenzahl

363

Beschreibung

Rezension

"The volume reflects the actual state-of-the-art and gives a good summary of what is currently known about drug interactions. The present volume is of interest not only to pharmacologists ... it should find a great number of interested readers among physicians." International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology

Details

Einband

Taschenbuch

Erscheinungsdatum

28.09.2011

Herausgeber

Verlag

Springer Berlin

Seitenzahl

363

Maße (L/B/H)

23,5/15,5/2,1 cm

Gewicht

596 g

Auflage

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996

Sprache

Englisch

ISBN

978-3-642-64658-4

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  • Mechanisms of Drug Interactions
  • 1 Introduction.- A. A Widening Problem.- I. Scope of This Present Volume.- B. Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions.- I. Drug-Drug and Nutrient-Drug Interactions at the Absorption Site.- II. Drug Interactions at Plasma- and Tissue-Binding Sites.- III. Drug Interactions and Drug-Metabolising Enzymes.- IV. Interactions Involving Renal Excretory Mechanisms.- C. Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions.- I. Drug-Drug Interactions at the Receptor and Other Active Sites.- II. Synergistic Interactions.- III. Drug Interactions In Vitro.- IV. Age and Genetic Factors.- V. Interference with Laboratory Testing.- VI. Herbal and Other Non-orthodox Medicines.- D. Comment.- I. Drug Interactions: Hazardous and Expensive Use of Resources?.- II. Sources of Information.- III. The Literature on Drug Interactions.- References.- Section I: Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions.- 2 Drug Interactions in The Gastrointestinal Tract and Their Impact on Drug Absorption and Systemic Availability: A Mechanistic Review.- A. Introduction.- B. Physicochemical Interactions.- I. Complexation with Metal Ions.- II. Binding to Resins.- III. Complexation with Bile Salts.- IV. Nonspecific Adsorption.- C. Interactions with Drugs That Influence GI Motility and pH.- I. Alteration of Gastrointestinal Motility.- II. pH Alteration in the Gastrointestinal Tract.- D. Interactions Between Drugs That Share the Same Absorption Mechanism.- I. Passive Absorption.- II. Carrier-Mediated Absorption.- E. Interactions as a Function of Intestinal Metabolism.- F. Altered Absorption as a Result of Drug-Induced Mucosal Changes.- References.- 3 Drug-Food Interactions Affecting Drug Absorption.- A. Introduction.- I. Food.- II. Dosage Form.- B. Influence of Food on the Gastrointestinal Tract.- C. Direct Effect of Food on Drug Absorption.- D. Interactions Causing Reduced Drug Absorption.- E. Interactions Causing Delayed Drug Absorption.- F. Interactions Causing Increased Drug Absorption.- G. Interactions Causing Accelerated Drug Absorption.- H. Cases in Which Food Has No Effect on Drug Absorption.- I. Conclusions.- References.- 4 Drug Interactions at Plasma and Tissue Binding Sites.- A. Introduction.- B. Proteins Involved in Drug Binding.- C. Influence of Plasma and Tissue Binding on Drug Kinetics.- D. Displacement of Drugs from Binding Sites.- E. Therapeutic Consequences of Plasma Binding Displacement Drug-Drug Interactions.- I. Rapid Intravenous Infusion of Displacing Agent.- II. Parenteral Administration of Displaced Drug Having High Extraction Ratio.- III. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Drug Displacement from Plasma Binding Sites.- F. Therapeutic Consequences of Tissue Binding Displacement Interactions.- G. Displacement of Drugs from Binding Sites by Endogenous Materials.- H. Disease States and Altered Plasma Protein Binding.- I. Conclusions.- References.- 5 Drug Interactions and Drug-Metabolising Enzymes.- A. General Introduction.- B. Extrahepatic Microsomal Forms of Cytochrome P450.- C. Genetic Polymorphism.- D. Age and Disease and Cytochrome P450.- E. Clinical Importance of Enzyme Induction or Inhibition.- I. Enzyme Inducers.- II. Enzyme Inhibitors.- F. Conclusions.- References.- 6 Drug Interactions Involving Renal Excretory Mechanisms.- A. Introduction.- B. Mechanisms of Renal Excretory Clearance.- I. Anatomy and Physiology of the Kidney.- II. Glomerular Filtration.- III. Tubular Secretion.- 1. Physiological Considerations.- 2. Cellular Mechanisms.- 3. Pharmacokinetic Evidence for Tubular Secretion.- IV. Tubular Reabsorption.- C. Drug Interactions Involving Tubular Secretion.- I. Organic Anions.- 1. Probenecid.- 2. Methotrexate.- II. Organic Cations.- 1. Cimetidine.- 2. Ranitidine.- 3. Famotidine.- 4. Trimethoprim.- 5. Amiodarone.- 6. Quinine/Quinidine.- III. Organic Neutral Drugs.- 1. Digoxin.- D. Tubular Reabsorption.- I. Proximal Tubule Site.- 1. Lithium.- II. Distal Tubule/Collecting Duct Site.- 1. Urine pH and Flow Rate.- References.- Section II: Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions.- 7 Drug-Drug Interactions at Receptors and Other Active Sites.- A. Introduction.- B. Mechanisms of Pharmacodynamic Interactions.- I. Transmitter Systems.- 1. Noradrenergic Synapse.- 2. Dopaminergic Synapse.- 3. Serotonergic Synapse.- 4. Cholinergic Synapse.- 5. GABAergic Synapse.- II. Ion Channels.- 1. Cardiac Ion Channels and Antiarrhythmic Drugs.- 2. Potassium Channels and Drug-Induced Torsades de Pointes.- 3. ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels.- III. Hormonal Systems.- 1. Adrenal Corticosteroids.- 2. Glycaemic Regulation.- IV. Homeostatic Regulations.- 1. Renal Haemodynamics and Drug-Induced Acute Renal Failure.- 2. Prostaglandins, Natriuresis and Antihypertensive Therapy.- 3. Potassium Homeostasis.- References.- 8 Synergistic Drug Interactions.- A. Introduction: “Mithridatium”.- B. Early Use of Probenecid with Penicillin.- C. Diuretic Combinations.- D. Co-trimoxazole.- E. Combination Treatment in Control of Epilepsy.- F. Antitubercular Drugs.- G. Anti-Leprosy Treatments.- H. Peptic Ulcer Therapy.- I. Non-Insulin-Dependent (Maturity Onset) Diabetes.- J. Cancer Chemotherapy.- K. Beneficial Interactions: A Philosophical Approach.- References.- 9 In Vitro Drug Interactions.- A. Introduction.- B. Incompatibility Interactions.- C. In Vitro Drug Interactions with Pharmaceutical Packaging and Intravenous Administration Equipment.- I. General Properties of Plastics.- II. General Properties of Glass.- III. Mechanisms of Interaction with Pharmaceutical Packaging.- 1. Sorption.- 2. Leaching.- 3. Permeation.- 4. Polymer Modification.- IV. Drug Interactions with Contact Lenses.- D. In Vitro Drug Interactions in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Drug Analysis.- I. Cyclosporin.- II. Chloroquine.- E. In Vitro Drug Interactions as a Result of Formulation Changes.- I. Problems with Sustained-Release Formulations.- II. Drug Excipient Interactions.- III. Formulation Effects on Rectal Bioavailability.- F. Conclusions.- References.- 10 Age and Genetic Factors in Drug Interactions.- A. Introduction.- B.Age.- I. Pharmacokinetics in the Elderly.- 1. Absorption.- 2. Distribution.- 3. Metabolism.- 4. Excretion.- II. Pharmacodynamics in the Elderly.- III. Inappropriate, Unnecessary and Interacting Medication.- IV. Logistics: Age and Medicine Consumption.- V. Long-Term Treatments.- C. Genetic Factors.- D. Comment.- References.- 11 Drugs Causing Interference with Laboratory Tests.- A. Introduction.- B. Mechanisms of Drug-Test Interactions.- I. Pharmacological Interferences.- 1. Effect on Glucose Determination.- 2. Effect on Uric Acid Determination.- 3. Intramuscular Injections and Muscle Enzyme Determination.- 4. Effect of Drug-Drug Interactions.- II. Methodological Interferences.- 1. Colorimetrie Interferences.- 2. Effect on pH of the Assay Environment.- 3. Interference with Chromatographic Methods.- 4. Interference with Enzymatic Reactions.- 5. Interference with Immunoassays.- C. Design of a Study for Evaluation of Analytical Interference.- D. Conclusions.- References.- 12 Drug Interactions with Herbal and Other Non-orthodox Remedies.- A. Introduction.- B. Animal Agents.- I. Fish Oil.- II. Chinese Toad Venom.- C. Amino Acids.- I. l-Tryptophan.- D. Vitamins.- E. Minerals.- F. Dietary Fads.- G. Herbal Drugs.- I. Effects of Herbal Drugs on Orthodox Drug Pharmacokinetics: Effects on Absorption.- 1. Dietary Fibres.- 2. Guar Gum.- 3. Tannins.- II. Effects of Herbal Drugs on Orthodox Drug Pharmacokinetics: Effects on Elimination.- 1. Cola Nut.- 2. Eucalyptus Species.- 3. Grapefruit Juice.- 4. Herbal Smoking Preparations.- 5. Kampo Medicines.- 6. Liquorice.- III. Effects of Orthodox Drugs on Herbal Drug Pharmacokinetics.- 1. Caffeine-Containing Herbs.- 2. Sparteine-Containing Herb.- 3. Teucrium chamaedrys.- IV. Pharmacodynamic Interactions Between Herbal Drugs and Orthodox Drugs.- 1. Betel Nut (Areca catechu).- 2. Garlic (Allium sativum).- 3. Karela (Momordica charantia).- 4. Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).- 5. Picrorhiza kurroa.- V. Multiple or Unclarified Interactions Between Herbal Drugs and Orthodox Drugs.- 1. Anthranoid Laxatives.- 2. Berberine.- 3. Ginseng (Pamax ginseng).- 4. Piperine.- 5. “Shankhapusphi”.- 6. Yohimbine.- VI. Interactions Between Different Herbal Drugs.- H. Comment.- References.