Geschichte des Christentums V
orientations towards tradition as well as modernization. The "short 20th century" - marked by the consequences of two world wars and fascist as well as communist ictatorships - presented the churches with new challenges, not least that of secularization. On the other hand, this century is marked by an ecumenical rapprochement of the denominations, by an intensive coming to terms with the past of the churches and by their participation in democratic reconstruction. These two major sections, which pay particular attention to developments in Germany and Europe, are supplemented
by a contribution on the history of Orthodoxy.