Photoacoustic, Photothermal and Photochemical Processes at Surfaces and in Thin Films

Topics in Current Physics Band 47

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Review articles by leading scientists in their fields are brought together in this volume to provide a comprehensive treatment of photoacoustic, photothermal and photochemical processes at surfaces and in thin films. The articles introduce the fields, review present knowledge and conclude with latest developments and future prospects. Topics covered include laser-induced desorption, ablation and surface damage; surface acoustic waves; photothermal and photoacoustic characterization of thin films and interfaces; depth profiling in the frequency and time domains; remote testing and nondestructive evaluation; materials characterization; and new theoretical approaches using fractals. The book will interest newcomers to photoacoustics, since it gives an overview of current research and details of experimental methods. It will also be a source of information for those already in the field due to its clear presentation of theory and experimental results. All relevant literature references in this rapidly expanding field are included.


Einband Taschenbuch
Herausgeber Peter Hess
Seitenzahl 376
Erscheinungsdatum 08.12.2011
Sprache Englisch
ISBN 978-3-642-83947-4
Verlag Springer Berlin
Maße (L/B/H) 24,2/17/2,1 cm
Gewicht 676 g
Auflage Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989

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  • 1. Introduction.- 1.1 Laser Excitation and Induced Processes.- 1.1.1 Laser Excitation.- 1.1.2 Laser-Induced Processes.- 1.2 Detection Schemes.- 1.2.1 Temporal Variation of Radiation Intensity.- 1.2.2 Detection Methods.- 1.3 Interface Systems.- 1.3.1 Homogeneous Phases with Ideal Boundaries.- 1.3.2 Random Media.- 1.3.3 Films and Layered Structures.- 1.4 Applications.- 1.4.1 Spectroscopy.- 1.4.2 Distribution of Energy.- 1.4.3 Transport Processes.- 1.4.4 Nondestructive Evaluation.- 1.5 Discussion of the Literature.- References.- 2. Desorption Stimulated by Electronic Excitation with Laser Light.- 2.1 Stimulated Desorption — An Overview.- 2.2 Desorption Induced by Laser Light.- 2.2.1 General Considerations.- 2.2.2 Desorption Stimulated by Laser-Induced Electronic Excitation.- 2.3 Laser-Induced Desorption Stimulated by Surface Plasmon Excitation.- 2.3.1 Method and Experiment.- 2.3.2 Results.- 2.3.3 Interpretation.- 2.3.4 Applications — Towards Monodisperse Particles on Supports.- 2.4 Conclusions and Outlook.- References.- 3. Time-of-Flight Analysis of IR and UV Laser-Induced Multilayer Desorption and Ablation.- 3.1 Background.- 3.1.1 Lasers in Surface Science.- 3.1.2 Laser-Induced Desorption and Ablation.- 3.1.3 Scope of Review.- 3.2 Desorption and Ablation.- 3.2.1 Resonant IR and UV Excitation.- 3.2.2 Mechanisms.- 3.2.3 Energy Considerations.- 3.3 Time-of-Flight Technique.- 3.3.1 Experimental Determination of Time-of-Flight Distributions.- 3.3.2 Theory of Time-of-Flight Distributions.- 3.3.3 Analysis of Time-of-Flight Distributions.- 3.4 IR Laser-Induced Desorption and Ablation.- 3.4.1 Overview of Systems.- 3.4.2 Wavelength Effects.- 3.4.3 Fluence Dependence.- 3.4.4 Selectivity and Mechanisms.- 3.5 UV Laser-Induced Desorption and Ablation.- 3.5.1 Overview of Systems.- 3.5.2 Photochemical Effects.- 3.5.3 Photothermal Effects.- 3.5.4 Real Systems.- 3.6 Conclusions.- References.- 4. From Laser-Induced Desorption to Surface Damage.- 4.1 Overview.- 4.2 Metals.- 4.2.1 Photothermal Deformation.- 4.2.2 Multiphoton Photoemission.- 4.2.3 Damage Threshold of Metals.- 4.2.4 Plasma Formation.- 4.3 Wide Band Gap Ionic Materials.- 4.3.1 Photothermal Deformation of Sapphire.- 4.3.2 Nonthermal Desorption of Neutrals.- 4.3.3 Multiphoton-Stimulated Emission of Charged Particles.- 4.3.4 Photoacoustic Determination of Damage Thresholds.- 4.4 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 5. Photothermal Analysis of Thin Films.- 5.1 Photothermal and Photoacoustic Effect in Thin Films.- 5.1.1 Signal Generation Process.- 5.1.2 Detection Methods.- 5.1.3 Instrumentation.- 5.2 Spectroscopy of Thin Films.- 5.2.1 Semiconducting Films.- 5.2.2 Dielectric and Metallic Films.- 5.2.3 Spectroscopy of Layered Films.- 5.2.4 Nonradiative Quantum Yield.- 5.3 Thermal Analysis of Thin Films.- 5.3.1 Thermal Diffusivity.- 5.3.2 Film Thickness.- 5.3.3 Phase Transitions.- 5.4 Ultrasonic Analysis of Thin Films.- 5.5 Nondestructive Evaluation of Thin Films.- 5.5.1 Depth Profiling.- 5.5.2 Imaging.- 5.6 Miscellaneous Thin Film Applications.- 5.6.1 Plasmon Detection.- 5.6.2 Ferromagnetic Resonance.- 5.7 Conclusion.- References.- 6. Photothermal Characterization of Surfaces and Interfaces.- 6.1 Photoacoustic Generation and Transducer Detection.- 6.1.1 Pulsed PA Imaging of Thin Layered Structures.- 6.1.2 Pulsed PA Monitoring of Laser-Induced Etching or Damage.- 6.2 Photothermal Probe-Beam Refractions.- 6.2.1 Detection of Laser-Induced Thermal Desorption in Atmospheric Conditions.- 6.3 Photothermal Radiometry.- 6.3.1 Spectroscopy and Thickness Measurements by Analysis of the Early Part of the PTR Line Shape.- 6.3.2 Subsurface Air Gap and Contact Resistance Measurement by Analysis of the Late Part of the PTR Line Shape.- 6.4 Conclusions.- References.- 7. Spectroscopic Depth Profiling Using Thermal Waves.- 7.1 Theory.- 7.1.1 Analytical Approaches.- 7.1.2 Digital Simulation.- 7.1.3 Information Content of Depth Profiling Experiments.- 7.2 Experimental Methods.- 7.2.1 Single-Frequency Measurements.- 7.2.2 Pulsed Methods.- 7.2.3 Multifrequency Methods.- 7.3 Applications.- 7.3.1 Biological Samples.- 7.3.2 Polymeric Samples.- 7.3.3 Other Solid Phase Samples.- 7.3.4 Dynamic Processes.- References.- 8. Frequency-Modulated Time-Delay-Domain Photothermal Spectrometry: Principles, Instrumentation and Applications to Solids.- 8.1 Introduction and Conceptual Building Blocks.- 8.1.1 Nature of FM Excitation.- 8.1.2 Classification of Correlation Functions and Photothermal Spectral Analysis.- 8.2 Experimental FM-TDS Recovery Techniques, Dynamic Range and Limitations.- 8.3 Photothermal Wave Applications.- 8.3.1 Photothermal Beam Deflection FM Spectrometry.- 8.3.2 Photopyroelectric Thin Film FM Spectrometry.- 8.3.3 Photothermal Reflectance FM Spectrometry.- 8.4 Conclusions — Future Directions.- References.- 9. Nondestructive Evaluation with Thermal Waves.- 9.1 Physical Background of Thermal Waves.- 9.2 Experimental Arrangement.- 9.3 Nondestructive Evaluation of Metals with Thermal Waves.- 9.3.1 Depth Range Experiments.- 9.3.2 Inspection of Faults.- 9.3.3 NDE of Deformation, Seams and Hardening.- 9.4 NDE of Nonmetals with Thermal Waves.- 9.4.1 Semiconductors.- 9.4.2 Ceramics.- 9.4.3 Polymers.- 9.5 Coatings.- 9.6 Conclusion.- References.- 10. Surface Acoustic Waves in Solid-State Investigations.- 10.1 Fundamentals.- 10.1.1 Surface Acoustic Waves — Types, Properties and Main Characteristics.- 10.1.2 Methods for Generation and Detection of Surface Acoustic Waves.- 10.1.3 Surface Wave Photoacoustics.- 10.1.4 Effects Resulting from the Propagation of Surface Acoustic Waves.- 10.2 Investigation and Characterization of Materials by Surface Acoustic Waves: State of the Art and Main Results.- 10.2.1 Elastic Properties.- 10.2.2 Electrical Properties and Electronic States in Semiconductors.- 10.2.3 Optical Properties.- 10.2.4 Kinetic Properties.- 10.2.5 Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors.- 10.3 Conclusion.- References.- 11. Heat Diffusion and Random Media.- 11.1 Diffusion Processes.- 11.2 Introduction to Fractal Geometry.- 11.3 Diffusion from Fractal Sources: A Possible Model for the Behavior of Rough Surfaces?.- 11.4 Euclidean and Fractal Sources in Random Media: A Possible Model for Heat Diffusion in Random Media?.- 11.5 Future Trends and Conclusion.- References.- 12. Locally Resolved Magnetic Resonance in Ferromagnetic Layers and Films.- 12.1 Survey of Microwave Resonance Detection Techniques.- 12.2 Basic Theory of Ferromagnetic Resonance.- 12.2.1 Uniform Mode Resonance.- 12.2.2 Magnetostatic Modes and Spin Waves.- 12.3 Photoacoustically Detected Ferromagnetic Resonance.- 12.3.1 Experimental Setups and Procedures.- 12.3.2 Depth-Dependent FMR from Layered Magnetic Tapes.- 12.3.3 PA-FMR from Metallic Foils and Films.- 12.4 FMR Detection by Photothermal Laser Beam Deflection.- 12.4.1 Specifications of the Detection Unit.- 12.4.2 PD-FMR Imaging of a Ni Film.- 12.4.3 PD-FMR Imaging of Amorphous Metallic Foils.- 12.4.4 Locally Resolved Spin Wave Resonance.- 12.4.5 Locally Resolved Surface Magnetostatic Modes in YIG.- 12.5 Photothermally Modulated Ferromagnetic Resonance.- 12.5.1 Experimental Arrangement.- 12.5.2 Signal Generation Process.- 12.5.3 PM-FMR Imaging of Magnetic Tapes and Foils.- 12.5.4 Photothermally Modulated Spin Wave Resonance.- 12.6 Summary.- References.