Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks

Inhaltsverzeichnis

How to Use This Book xiii
1 What are Wireless Sensor Networks? 1
1.1 Wireless Sensor Networks, 1
1.2 Sample Applications Around the World, 3
1.3 Types of Wireless Sensor Networks, 7
Summary, 10
Further Reading, 10
2 Anatomy of a Sensor Node 11
2.1 Hardware Components, 11
2.2 Power Consumption, 13
2.3 Operating Systems and Concepts, 15
2.3.1 Memory Management, 17
2.3.2 Interrupts, 23
2.3.3 Tasks, Threads, and Events, 24
2.4 Simulators, 26
2.5 Communication Stack, 28
2.5.1 Sensor Network Communication Stack, 28
2.5.2 Protocols and Algorithms, 30
Anatomy of a Sensor Node: Summary, 30
Further Reading, 30
3 Radio Communications 33
3.1 Radio Waves and Modulation/Demodulation, 33
3.2 Properties of Wireless Communications, 36
3.2.1 Interference and Noise, 37
3.2.2 Hidden Terminal Problem, 38
3.2.3 Exposed Terminal Problem, 39
3.3 Medium Access Protocols, 39
3.3.1 Design Criteria for Medium Access Protocols, 41
3.3.2 Time Division Multiple Access, 42
3.3.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access, 45
3.3.4 Sensor MAC, 48
3.3.5 Berkeley MAC, 50
3.3.6 Optimizations of B-MAC, 51
3.3.7 Other Protocols and Trends, 51
Radio Communications: Summary, 53
Questions and Exercises, 53
Further Reading, 54
4 Link Management 57
4.1 Wireless Links Introduction, 57
4.2 Properties of Wireless Links, 59
4.2.1 Links and Geographic Distance, 59
4.2.2 Asymmetric Links, 60
4.2.3 Link Stability and Burstiness, 61
4.3 Error Control, 62
4.3.1 Backward Error Control, 62
4.3.2 Forward Error Control, 63
4.4 Naming and Addressing, 64
4.4.1 Naming, 64
4.4.2 Addressing, 65
4.4.3 Assignment of Addresses and Names, 65
4.4.4 Using Names and Addresses, 66
4.5 Link Estimation Protocols, 66
4.5.1 Design Criteria, 66
4.5.2 Link Quality Based, 67
4.5.3 Delivery Rate Based, 68
4.5.4 Passive and Active Estimators, 69
4.5.5 Collection Tree Protocol, 69
4.6 Topology Control, 71
4.6.1 Centralized Topology Control, 71
4.6.2 Distributed Topology Control, 72
Link Management: Summary, 73
Questions and Exercises, 73
Further Reading, 74
5 Multi-Hop Communications 77
5.1 Routing Basics, 77
5.2 Routing Metrics, 80
5.2.1 Location and Geographic Vicinity, 80
5.2.2 Hops, 81
5.2.3 Number of Retransmissions, 82
5.2.4 Delivery Delay, 83
5.3 Routing Protocols, 84
5.3.1 Full-Network Broadcast, 85
5.3.2 Location-Based Routing, 87
5.3.3 Directed Diffusion, 90
5.3.4 Collection Tree Protocol, 92
5.3.5 Zigbee, 94
Multi-Hop Communications: Summary, 95
Questions and Exercises, 96
Further Reading, 96
6 Data Aggregation and Clustering 99
6.1 Clustering Techniques, 99
6.1.1 Random Clustering, 101
6.1.2 Nearest Sink, 102
6.1.3 Geographic Clustering, 103
6.1.4 Clustering Summary, 104
6.2 In-Network Processing and Data Aggregation, 104
6.2.1 Compression, 104
6.2.2 Statistical Techniques, 107
6.3 Compressive Sampling, 109
Data Aggregation and Clustering: Summary, 110
Questions and Exercises, 111
Further Reading, 111
7 Time Synchronization 113
7.1 Clocks and Delay Sources, 113
7.2 Requirements and Challenges, 114
7.3 Time Synchronization Protocols, 117
7.3.1 Lightweight Tree Synchronization, 117
7.3.2 Reference Broadcast Synchronization, 118
7.3.3 NoTime Protocol, 118
Time Synchronization: Summary, 120
Questions and Exercises, 121
Further Reading, 121
8 Localization Techniques 123
8.1 Localization Challenges and Properties, 123
8.1.1 Types of Location Information, 124
8.1.2 Precision Against Accuracy, 125
8.1.3 Costs, 125
8.2 Pre-Deployment Schemes, 126
8.3 Proximity Schemes, 126
8.4 Ranging Schemes, 128
8.4.1 Triangulation, 129
8.4.2 Trilateration, 129
8.5 Range-Based Localization, 129
8.6 Range-Free Localization, 130
8.6.1 Hop-Based Localization, 130
8.6.2 Point in Triangle (PIT), 131
Localization: Summary, 132
Questions and Exercises, 133
Further Reading, 133
9 Sensing Techniques 135
9.1 Types of Sensors, 135
9.2 Sensing Coverage, 136
9.3 High-Level Sensors, 137
9.4 Special Case: The Human As a Sensor, 138
9.5 Actuators, 138
9.6 Sensor Calibration, 139
9.7 Detecting Errors, 140
Sensing Techniques: Summary, 141
Questions and Exercises, 141
10 Designing and Deploying WSN Applications 143
10.1 Early WSN Deployments, 143
10.1.1 Murphy Loves Potatoes, 144
10.1.2 Great Duck Island, 144
10.2 General Problems, 145
10.2.1 Node Problems, 146
10.2.2 Link/Path Problems, 147
10.2.3 Global Problems, 148
10.3 General Testing and Validation, 149
10.4 Requirements Analysis, 151
10.4.1 Analyzing the Environment, 151
10.4.2 Analyzing Lifetime and Energy Requirements, 153
10.4.3 Analyzing Required Data, 153
10.4.4 Analyzing User Expectations, 154
10.5 The Top-Down Design Process, 154
10.5.1 The Network, 154
10.5.2 The Node Neighborhood, 155
10.5.3 The Node, 156
10.5.4 Individual Components of the Node, 156
10.6 Bottom-Up Implementation Process, 157
10.6.1 Individual Node-Level Modules, 158
10.6.2 The Node As an Entity, 159
10.6.3 The Network As an Entity, 159
Designing and Deploying WSN Applications: Summary, 160
Further Reading, 160
11 Summary and Outlook 163
Index 167

Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks

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Erscheinungsdatum

08.07.2016

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John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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186

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24/16,1/1,5 cm

Beschreibung

Details

Einband

Gebundene Ausgabe

Erscheinungsdatum

08.07.2016

Verlag

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Seitenzahl

186

Maße (L/B/H)

24/16,1/1,5 cm

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451 g

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1. Auflage

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Englisch

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Die Leseprobe wird geladen.
  • Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
  • How to Use This Book xiii
    1 What are Wireless Sensor Networks? 1
    1.1 Wireless Sensor Networks, 1
    1.2 Sample Applications Around the World, 3
    1.3 Types of Wireless Sensor Networks, 7
    Summary, 10
    Further Reading, 10
    2 Anatomy of a Sensor Node 11
    2.1 Hardware Components, 11
    2.2 Power Consumption, 13
    2.3 Operating Systems and Concepts, 15
    2.3.1 Memory Management, 17
    2.3.2 Interrupts, 23
    2.3.3 Tasks, Threads, and Events, 24
    2.4 Simulators, 26
    2.5 Communication Stack, 28
    2.5.1 Sensor Network Communication Stack, 28
    2.5.2 Protocols and Algorithms, 30
    Anatomy of a Sensor Node: Summary, 30
    Further Reading, 30
    3 Radio Communications 33
    3.1 Radio Waves and Modulation/Demodulation, 33
    3.2 Properties of Wireless Communications, 36
    3.2.1 Interference and Noise, 37
    3.2.2 Hidden Terminal Problem, 38
    3.2.3 Exposed Terminal Problem, 39
    3.3 Medium Access Protocols, 39
    3.3.1 Design Criteria for Medium Access Protocols, 41
    3.3.2 Time Division Multiple Access, 42
    3.3.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access, 45
    3.3.4 Sensor MAC, 48
    3.3.5 Berkeley MAC, 50
    3.3.6 Optimizations of B-MAC, 51
    3.3.7 Other Protocols and Trends, 51
    Radio Communications: Summary, 53
    Questions and Exercises, 53
    Further Reading, 54
    4 Link Management 57
    4.1 Wireless Links Introduction, 57
    4.2 Properties of Wireless Links, 59
    4.2.1 Links and Geographic Distance, 59
    4.2.2 Asymmetric Links, 60
    4.2.3 Link Stability and Burstiness, 61
    4.3 Error Control, 62
    4.3.1 Backward Error Control, 62
    4.3.2 Forward Error Control, 63
    4.4 Naming and Addressing, 64
    4.4.1 Naming, 64
    4.4.2 Addressing, 65
    4.4.3 Assignment of Addresses and Names, 65
    4.4.4 Using Names and Addresses, 66
    4.5 Link Estimation Protocols, 66
    4.5.1 Design Criteria, 66
    4.5.2 Link Quality Based, 67
    4.5.3 Delivery Rate Based, 68
    4.5.4 Passive and Active Estimators, 69
    4.5.5 Collection Tree Protocol, 69
    4.6 Topology Control, 71
    4.6.1 Centralized Topology Control, 71
    4.6.2 Distributed Topology Control, 72
    Link Management: Summary, 73
    Questions and Exercises, 73
    Further Reading, 74
    5 Multi-Hop Communications 77
    5.1 Routing Basics, 77
    5.2 Routing Metrics, 80
    5.2.1 Location and Geographic Vicinity, 80
    5.2.2 Hops, 81
    5.2.3 Number of Retransmissions, 82
    5.2.4 Delivery Delay, 83
    5.3 Routing Protocols, 84
    5.3.1 Full-Network Broadcast, 85
    5.3.2 Location-Based Routing, 87
    5.3.3 Directed Diffusion, 90
    5.3.4 Collection Tree Protocol, 92
    5.3.5 Zigbee, 94
    Multi-Hop Communications: Summary, 95
    Questions and Exercises, 96
    Further Reading, 96
    6 Data Aggregation and Clustering 99
    6.1 Clustering Techniques, 99
    6.1.1 Random Clustering, 101
    6.1.2 Nearest Sink, 102
    6.1.3 Geographic Clustering, 103
    6.1.4 Clustering Summary, 104
    6.2 In-Network Processing and Data Aggregation, 104
    6.2.1 Compression, 104
    6.2.2 Statistical Techniques, 107
    6.3 Compressive Sampling, 109
    Data Aggregation and Clustering: Summary, 110
    Questions and Exercises, 111
    Further Reading, 111
    7 Time Synchronization 113
    7.1 Clocks and Delay Sources, 113
    7.2 Requirements and Challenges, 114
    7.3 Time Synchronization Protocols, 117
    7.3.1 Lightweight Tree Synchronization, 117
    7.3.2 Reference Broadcast Synchronization, 118
    7.3.3 NoTime Protocol, 118
    Time Synchronization: Summary, 120
    Questions and Exercises, 121
    Further Reading, 121
    8 Localization Techniques 123
    8.1 Localization Challenges and Properties, 123
    8.1.1 Types of Location Information, 124
    8.1.2 Precision Against Accuracy, 125
    8.1.3 Costs, 125
    8.2 Pre-Deployment Schemes, 126
    8.3 Proximity Schemes, 126
    8.4 Ranging Schemes, 128
    8.4.1 Triangulation, 129
    8.4.2 Trilateration, 129
    8.5 Range-Based Localization, 129
    8.6 Range-Free Localization, 130
    8.6.1 Hop-Based Localization, 130
    8.6.2 Point in Triangle (PIT), 131
    Localization: Summary, 132
    Questions and Exercises, 133
    Further Reading, 133
    9 Sensing Techniques 135
    9.1 Types of Sensors, 135
    9.2 Sensing Coverage, 136
    9.3 High-Level Sensors, 137
    9.4 Special Case: The Human As a Sensor, 138
    9.5 Actuators, 138
    9.6 Sensor Calibration, 139
    9.7 Detecting Errors, 140
    Sensing Techniques: Summary, 141
    Questions and Exercises, 141
    10 Designing and Deploying WSN Applications 143
    10.1 Early WSN Deployments, 143
    10.1.1 Murphy Loves Potatoes, 144
    10.1.2 Great Duck Island, 144
    10.2 General Problems, 145
    10.2.1 Node Problems, 146
    10.2.2 Link/Path Problems, 147
    10.2.3 Global Problems, 148
    10.3 General Testing and Validation, 149
    10.4 Requirements Analysis, 151
    10.4.1 Analyzing the Environment, 151
    10.4.2 Analyzing Lifetime and Energy Requirements, 153
    10.4.3 Analyzing Required Data, 153
    10.4.4 Analyzing User Expectations, 154
    10.5 The Top-Down Design Process, 154
    10.5.1 The Network, 154
    10.5.2 The Node Neighborhood, 155
    10.5.3 The Node, 156
    10.5.4 Individual Components of the Node, 156
    10.6 Bottom-Up Implementation Process, 157
    10.6.1 Individual Node-Level Modules, 158
    10.6.2 The Node As an Entity, 159
    10.6.3 The Network As an Entity, 159
    Designing and Deploying WSN Applications: Summary, 160
    Further Reading, 160
    11 Summary and Outlook 163
    Index 167